Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes

Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes

Carbohydrate-active enzymes break down complex carbohydrates. These enzymes are represented by superfamilies and subfamilies which degrade, modify or create glycosidic bonds, one of the most stable bonds found in our natural world. The following resources will assist you in your research of Glycogenomics:


Glycosidases and Trans Glycosidases

The Superfamily Transglycosidases: Examines the lineage and family of the transglycosidase superfamily, part of the structural classification of proteins.

HMM Library and Genome Assignments Server: Database for the structural classification, genome assignments, sequence alignments, domain combinations, and taxonomic distribution of the Transglycosidase superfamily.

Cell Wall Metabolism and Glycosidases: "The Involvement of Glycosidases in the Cell Wall Metabolism of Suspension-cultured Acer pseudoplatanus Cells" (Plant Physiol. (1970) 45, 675-678).

Structural Insights: Paper runs through genomic data, glycoside hydrolases, the glycosidic bond, glycotransferase, and carbohydrate esterases.

Divergence Catalytic Mechanism: Article explores the enzymatic cleavage of the glycosidic bond and its products (Chemistry & Biology, Volume 15, Issue 10, 1058-1067, 09 October 2008).



Phylogenomic Techniques: This short paper is a description of a recent project studying the "Application of phylogenomic techniques in studying glycosyltransferase and glycoside hydrolase families."

Sweet Secrets of Synthesis: This article on glycobiology examines "the crystal structure of a ‘retaining’ glycosyltransferase."

Glycosyltransferases and Glycan Processing Enzymes: Chapter five of the Essentials of Glycobiology (2nd edition) addresses the characteristics of glycan biosynthesis and modification.

Plant Glycosyltransferases: Discusses the progress in the identification and cloning of genes that encode glycosyltransferases such as the completed Arabidopsis genome sequence.

Arabidopsis: Glycosyltransferase Family 1 links page to the chromosomes, UGT alignments, phylogenetic trees, intron maps, ESTs, and FASTA files of this genome.


Polysaccharide Lyases

Anti-Beta Elimination: Sugar uronic acids, which are enzyme-catalyzed ß-eliminated, are essential to an array of bio-processes from plant recycling to pathogen virulence. These are common to the one and 10 polysaccharide lysase families.

Pectic Enzymes: Plant Pathogen Virulence: Investigative topics of the structure and function of pectate lyase C.

Cellular Sialidase Transforms Sugars: Explains a recent study showing that carbohydrates at the cell surface can be altered by endogenous glycosidase, generating a new function (Nature Chemical Biology 4, 721 – 722 (2008) ?doi:10.1038/nchembio1208-721).


Carbohydrate Esterases

Carbohydrate Esterase Gene Families: Database from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes server for families 1, 8, 10, 11, and 13.

Carb Esterase Active Site: Divergent catalytic and noncatalytic binding functions researched (PLoS Biology, March 2009).

The Expanding World of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes A very readable breakdown on the structural insights of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

Aglycon Structure and Glycosylation: Presentation detailing how "Small Changes in Aglycon Structure May Influence the Outcome of Glycosylation" includes discussion regarding the recently discovered carbohydrate esterase, glucuronoyl.

New Family of Enzymes: Details the "potential O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase activity in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria" (BMC Microbiol. 2005; 5: 49. Published online 2005 August 19. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-5-49).


Carbohydrate-Binding Modules

Carbohydrates and How They Bind: Basic information introducing carbohydrates and the glycosidic bonds, types of sugars and polysaccharides, and lectins.

Alg13 Subunit N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase: February 2010 article explains how the carbohydrates are built, the sugar transfer, and a surprise nucleotide binding. 

3LEW: Crystal Structure: SusD-like carb-binding protein with the classification of sugar-binding protien: see the biological assembly, molecular description, ligand chemical component, and deposition summary of 3LEW released in February 2010.

Mannose Binding Lectin: Research on the genetically-defined deficiency of mannose-binding lectin after stroke (Cervera A, Planas AM, Justicia C, Urra X, Jensenius JC, et al. 2010 Genetically-Defined Deficiency of Mannose-Binding Lectin Is Associated with Protection after Experimental Stroke in Mice and Outcome in Human Stroke. PLoS ONE 5(2): e8433. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008433).

Glycoprotein-Lectin Interactions: White paper detailing how the Farfield Dual Polarisation Interferometry AnaLight "provides absolute mass, dimensional and density measurements of proteins at high resolutions." (Application Note 020, The Farfield Group).

Family 35 Carb Binding Molecules: The article explores the evidence that "Family 35 carbohydrate binding modules display conserved specificity but divergent function" (PNAS March 3, 2009 vol. 106 no. 9 3065-3070).


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